Education in America In the early development of schooling in the United States began in colonial times. Schooling when it is elitist and religiously oriented. People who are in socio-economic layers below may only be educated in "school mom", which is a school that teaches reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion. While people in the upper socio-economic layers prepared to be a church leader, community leader, or the leader of the country through the Latin school and colleges. In those days women did not have children in school-the freedom to manifest a form of gender discrimination that occurs in many countries that were colonized-(Dimyati, 1988).
The American people managed to gain independence and formed the United States on July 4, 1776. The independence of climate change impact on the pattern of education in America. Elitist education changed. At this time the movement came the Public School which is open to all young white men and women. Public School was formed and designed to form the basis of competence and skills of citizens. Public School development efforts have led to the pros and cons in the community. Most people agree with the government interference and intervention in the development of Public School, but some refused.
Educational activities in the United States does not stop until here. Long history of education in the country coloring activities "Uncle Sam" is. Following three periods of educational reform will fill a long record of the history of education in America. The third period of education reform is the public school movement in the middle of the 19th century, the progressive nature in the early 20th century, and the last generation fermentaso movement. Each period is always questioning and changing educational patterns that already exist.
Public School in the 19th century spread throughout America, but ironically educators and educational support facilities when it was minimal. In a further development, it came to pass education reform movement that led to the successful can unite social groups of different wishes. The success of the movement to support the development of Public School. In the middle of the 19th century's Public School is designed to provide basic public education so that graduates are expected to participate in political life and to enter the workforce.
At the time of going progressive centralization of supervision and elaboration in the Common School education system. Educational experts to use the power of the state to strengthen the position of, for example, to obtain certification, the funds, facilities, and curriculum standardization. At this time came the idea that the Common School not only equip students with basic education in the field of 3 R (reading, writing, aritmathic) and moral education, but is also expected to prepare students directly in order to perform the role in social life, so here Schools is an institution that became the gateway to direct students towards the working world.
Movement fermentaso last generation in the history of education in America begins in 1958 until the middle 1970s. At this time the reforms in the education sector, characterized by more emphasis on the function of educational goals. Centralization of government policy in education is increasing as a result of the education reform. In a further development, teacher organizations grow, more influential, and gain political power. It causes teachers unite to demand economic and social improvement. In the early 1980s public school applicants dropped. When the public school faces a crisis of public confidence and low professional morale. People want the changes to public school, but the decision makers often lack an understanding of public education itself, so they can not determine the priority for fixing this institution (public school). Reforms come and go and go, but the solutions do not work on the rational that the real problem (Dimyati, 1988).